Phytosanitary condition of agricultural crops in Ukraine as of April 27, 2017

15:56 | ProAgro

Variable cloudiness (fluctuations of night and daytime temperatures) with precipitation in the form of rain and snow contributed to the gradual development and spread of pathogens on winter grain and rape crops, but negatively affected the harmfulness of phytophages, the development of which slowed due to a delay in the growth of effective heat. In addition, such weather conditions remained unfavorable for flowering and fruit pollination.

As reported by ProAgro, it has been informed by the press service of the State Service of Ukraine on Food Safety and Consumer Protection.

In the sowing of winter and spring grain crops, slow dispersal and development of grain fleas, pies, aphids and leafhoppers occurs, which in pre-threshold numbers injured 2-4% (max.18%) of plants. In grain crops of southern, central and eastern regions pupation of caterpillars of Agrotis segetum and larvae of Zabrus tenebrioides were noted. The growth of phytophagous activity is expected with the establishment of dry and hot weather.

In the steppe there is a low-level migration of Eurygaster integriceps to the areas of winter grain crops. The average number of the overwintered bug is 0.5-1 specimens per square meter in 2-31% of the areas. Subsequently, phytophages gradually settle in all areas of grain and will harm plants, causing them to lag behind in growth and development, premature yellowing, etc. According to the above-threshold population in populated areas, there is a need to apply chemical protection for plants.

At the same time, a sufficient amount of moisture against the background of positive air temperatures contributed to the progression of the development of pathogens in winter grain crops. Powdery mildew damaged 1-16%, Septoria-1-7%, helminthosporiosis,  Rhinchosporium (Transcarpathial; Lviv region), brown leaf rust - 2-12% of plants, root rot - 1-5% of plants. In Ternopil and Cherkasy regions, 0.5-2.5% of plants in spring barley sowings were affected by root rot, Helminthosporium, striped spot and Rhinchosporium. Winter and spring crops were healthier with fungicides applied, which permitted for use. The choice of chemicals was carried out taking into account the spectrum of their protective action.

Shoots of peas continue to be colonized by nodule weevils; in the southern and eastern regions by south-gray weevil. In pre-threshold abundance they were able to damaged 6-10% of plants. In Ternopil region, 1% of plants are affected by root rot. In perennial herbs some nodule, alfalfa, clover and other weevils were observed and damaged 6-13% of plants.

At the same time, a sufficient amount of moisture against the background of positive air temperatures contributed to the progression of the development of pathogens in winter grain crops. Powdery mildew damaged 1-16%, Septoria-1-7%, helminthosporiosis, Rhinchosporium (Transcarpathial; Lviv region), brown leaf rust - 2-12% of plants, root rot - 1-5% of plants. In Ternopil and Cherkasy regions, 0.5-2.5% of plants in spring barley sowings were affected by root rot, Helminthosporium, striped spot and Rhinchosporium. Winter and spring crops were healthier with fungicides applied, which permitted for use. The choice of chemicals was carried out taking into account the spectrum of their protective action.

Shoots of peas continue to be colonized by nodule weevils, in the southern and eastern regions by south-gray weevil. In pre-threshold abundance they were able to damaged 6-10% of plants. In Ternopil region, 1% of plants are affected by root rot. In perennial herbs some nodule, alfalfa, clover and other weevils were observed and damaged 6-13% of plants.

The planting of winter rape were observed with rapeseed weevil and leaf weevil, which in number of 1-3 specimens on the plant, damaged 5-10% of plants with low degree. On shoots of spring rape, cruciferous fleas with an average population of 0.5-2 specimens per square meter (1-4% of plants were damaged in a weak degree). In some places the harmfulness of cruciferous bugs was noted.

On 5-34% of the surveyed areas of winter rapeseed, plants are affected by peronosporosis, alternaria, phomosis, root bacteriosis (1.5-9% of damage). All in all, when signs of disease appear, it is advisable to carry out the treatment permitted for use.

Kiev, Kirovograd and Cherkassy regions on the sprouts of sugar beet was found 0.1 specimens per square meter of Bothynoderes punctiventris. In the Vinnytsia region, on shoots in the pre-threshold number, beetroot fleas develop and causer harm. The larvae of leaf beet aphid develop and feed on the plant and later will populate the beet shoots.

Kiev, Kirovograd and Cherkasy regions on the sprouts of sugar beet was found 0.1 specimens per square meter of Bothynoderes punctiventris. In the Vinnytsia region, on shoots in the pre-threshold number, beetroot fleas develop and causer harm. The larvae of leaf beet aphid develop and feed on the plant and later will populate the beet shoots.

Sunflower seedlings are damaged by Opatrum sabulosum, locally by southern gray and gray weevil. Locally, in the farm of the Kiev region gray weevil damaged up to 22% of plants in a weak degree.

Garden weevils were everywhere in warm sunny days in the number of 1-5 specimens per tree and have damaged 3-20% of buds on 12-30% of trees. In the pomegranate gardens, the pre-threshold population of apple aphids, fruit mites and leaf rollers are fed. In the steppe there is a food for caterpillars of hawthorn, a golden-horned moth. Moreover, in Kiev and Cherkassy regions, May beetles widesprading around in a big quantities.

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